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  • Screening tests: The first set of tests to determine the likelihood that a person has a particular disorder or disease.
  • Seizures: changes in behavior that occur after an episode of abnormal electrical activity in the brain.
  • Sequential/Sequentially:  following a specific order or sequence.
  • Serum ferritin test: used to test the amount of iron stored in your body. The higher the serum ferritin level, the more iron you have.
  • Simple carbohydrates: sugars made up of one or two sugar molecules, such as milk sugar (lactose).
  • Singlet oxygen: a reactive form of oxygen that is higher in energy.
  • Sodium: a vital element in the human body; serves as the main extracellular (outside cells) action and is important for nerve function.
  • sPCT: sporadic porphyria cutanea tards, also referred to as the “acquired” non-inherited form of PCT; also known as PCT Type I.
  • Splenectomy: surgical removal of the spleen.
  • Splenomegaly: enlargement of the spleen.
  • Succinyl CoA:  a product of the urea cycle and one of the two starting compounds in the heme biosynthesis pathway.
  • Sulfonamides: This usually refers to a class of antibiotics, which are used widely for bacterial infections, sometimes referred to as “sula drugs”, and have been implicating in causing attacks of acute porphyria. They should not be confused with sulfur, sulfites or sulfates, none of which is known to have a specific effect in porphyria.
  • Symptomatology:  the study of symptoms, in order to make a diagnosis.
  • Symptoms: signs or problems that indicates disease.